Peg and Hole Joinery

Questions and answers relating to houses built in the 1800s and before.

Moderators: oldhouse, TinaB, Don M, Schag

lupinfarm
Posts: 934
Joined: Wed Aug 18, 2010 8:55 pm
Location: Ontario, Canada

Peg and Hole Joinery

Post by lupinfarm »

Finally got my kitchen floor and framing rebuillt
All the plumbing and heating sorted. However
The main support beam which runs from front of
House to the rear was attached at either end
Using Peg and Hole joinery. Does anyone know
When this type of joinery fell out of favor?
This part of my house is a wooden ( what I thought was an addition
To the 2 up 2 down brick Victorian part). However
Could I have this all wrong and the Brick part berthe
Later addition?
Will post picture later as I am doing this Via iphone
putting the 18 back in my 1872 Victorian farmhouse.

James
Posts: 1640
Joined: Thu Jun 23, 2005 8:36 pm
Location: Rural Eastern North Carolina

Re: Peg and Hole Joinery

Post by James »

I have not heard it referred to as Peg and hole joinery, but I assume you mean Mortise and tenon, which is the same thing. My house has mortise and tenon joinery all through it. I would say it was common at least into the early 19th century, and possible later. I would not be one bit surprised if the wooden one story part of the house was older, you see that on a LOT of older houses around here.
Last edited by James on Fri Jan 25, 2013 9:40 pm, edited 2 times in total.
Locust Quarter, circa 1770 Georgian Gambrel roofed cottage.

lupinfarm
Posts: 934
Joined: Wed Aug 18, 2010 8:55 pm
Location: Ontario, Canada

Re: Peg and Hole Joinery

Post by lupinfarm »

The only thing is there is no Mortise or Tenon..It looks more like a lap joint. The sill was chiseled into a square pocket and a hole drilled through it in the center. The beam had been cut to fit in the pocket and a hole drilled into it that corresponded with the hole in the pocket. A peg somewhat larger in diameter than the hole was driven in through both pieces of wood to
secure them. It took the contractor about 1hour to coax it out. I am not sure if that would be considered a Mortise and Tenon
joint didn't sit in a complete square hole. The beam end was simply lowered into the pocket and not slotted in from the front.
I could be completely out to lunch here. So correct me if I am.
Attachments
Front of house showing wooden addition on left?
Front of house showing wooden addition on left?
Front window.jpg (274.63 KiB) Viewed 7617 times
putting the 18 back in my 1872 Victorian farmhouse.

GothicHome
Posts: 170
Joined: Wed Apr 18, 2012 9:08 pm
Location: Chatham Kent On / Calgary Ab

Re: Peg and Hole Joinery

Post by GothicHome »

Great to hear your making progress, how did you make out on your kitchen floor underpinnings, I either missed the solution or you hadn't posted it. As far as ealy homes go in the Chatham area a fellow started removing layers of upgrades and additions form his home intending to demolish it and build new. What he found underneath was a three hundred year French settlers home. It is now on the historic places list because of it's historical reference to the land scape and French history of the area.

Sombreuil_Mongrel
Posts: 2189
Joined: Sat Sep 30, 2006 10:12 am
Location: WV

Re: Peg and Hole Joinery

Post by Sombreuil_Mongrel »

A half-lap joint where both pieces run in the same direction is a simple scarf joint. Scarf joints can get wonderfully elaborate and decorative, where the shape of the cuts makes the joint as strong as possible in the direction that strength is required. Lap joints are the weakest, and I have only seen them directly above posts/bearing points. The lap can keep the two members aligned, but not much else at that level of sophistication.
They were used forever, and still in use, wherever a wood timber of suitable length cannot be readily had.
Casey
Image

ripfish
Posts: 11
Joined: Thu Jan 17, 2013 6:21 pm

Re: Peg and Hole Joinery

Post by ripfish »

You are referring to mortise and tenon joinery. James McPerson in "Battle Cry of Freedom" has a good discussion of the economic and social factors in the 19th century (1840 or so) that saw the transition from the carefully crafted joinery to techniques resembling today's techniques using nails. Believe this occured mid-18th century. At the time the country was transitioning from small village-based economy where all resources and specialized labor existed within a single village or town, to a trade-based economy where resources for a project were brought in from other states or regions. For example, the nails for the new techniques were likely made in the factories of Pennsylvania or New York vs. say a local town in South Carolina. The new techniques -- much as modern techniques rely on the ease and economy of sheet rock -- grew from a labor shortage in the mid-1800s and economies of scale. My original house was built in 1731, but we can see early use of mortise and tenon, as well as nails. Nails from the mid to late 1800's have relativley square heads and are larger because they were used to quickly join wooden beams. Nails from the 1700s have "rose heads", and are generallyt much smaller than the later nails, being used principally for weather boards and lathe. Ripfish.

ripfish
Posts: 11
Joined: Thu Jan 17, 2013 6:21 pm

Re: Peg and Hole Joinery

Post by ripfish »

I need to correct myself. As the tenons were inserted into the mortise, there were holes drilled through the beam moritse and tenon, and then pegs were driven in to hold it all in place, So, "peg and hole" is accurate I suppose as a part of the morties and tenon technique. Ii have some good pictures of mortises, tenons, pegs, and holes from my house if anyone is interersted. Ripfish.

James
Posts: 1640
Joined: Thu Jun 23, 2005 8:36 pm
Location: Rural Eastern North Carolina

Re: Peg and Hole Joinery

Post by James »

Your house is constructed much like mine ripfish. Lots of pegs holding it together. I can see six just from where I am sitting in the living room right now.
Always interested in more pictures.
Locust Quarter, circa 1770 Georgian Gambrel roofed cottage.

ripfish
Posts: 11
Joined: Thu Jan 17, 2013 6:21 pm

Re: Peg and Hole Joinery

Post by ripfish »

James,
can you give me some advice in loading files to the forum. When I use "upload attachment", pictures, once inserted, are very, very large and you must use the scroll bar to view from one end to another. Ripfish.

ripfish
Posts: 11
Joined: Thu Jan 17, 2013 6:21 pm

Re: Peg and Hole Joinery

Post by ripfish »

BurkesTavern Peg_1731.jpg
BurkesTavern Peg_1731.jpg (40.09 KiB) Viewed 7518 times
James, Attached is picture of peg and mortise-tenon joint just over sill on brick wall in dining room. This structure has since been closed in plaster. I figured out that you must save your pictures as 599X288 pixles to reduce their size. I re-lathed this area and used horse hair plaster to restore (lath can be seen on other side of wall in picture. Ripfish.

Post Reply