Property tax records
Property taxes go back much farther in history than income or other taxes. They were paid on all real property, whether any house had been built or not. Since they were based on property value, periodic assessments were necessary, and those records probably still exist for your area. Records of payments also were kept. Then as now, the assessed values are only loosely related to the price a person would pay to buy the place.
Taxes went up over the years, as they still do, but the building of a house caused the property value to increase significantly. If the neighboring properties increased much less, or not at all, from one assessment to the next, chances are you've pinpointed the time frame for your house's construction.
Since these records dealt with the legally defined property (Smith's Addition to the city of Smithville, Lot #4), they probably are listed by their legal descriptions, which you know since you own the place, and therefore can lead you to the names of property owners.
Property tax records can help you:
Figure out your house's build date -- compare assessed values year by year
Find out who owned the property at various stages, beginning with the person who originally platted (laid out or subdivided) your neighborhood. This can come in handy if the chain of title deeds breaks down.
Date major additions to the property
Where to look for property tax records:
County assessor's office
University and state libraries
Local historical society/museum
Some localities keep all their records up to the present in one place; others have placed their older records in libraries or archives, for safekeeping or to improve public access.
The Thaddeus W. Bayless House
Built between July 1863 and January 1865, major add/reno between 1890 and 1902
Style = Mutt